February 2020: one drought record left

Rainfall status Manilla Jan-Feb 2020

Changing shortages

Very high February rainfall of 165.4 mm further reduced nearly all rainfall shortages, especially short-term ones. The 12-month rainfall total (432 mm) now just qualifies as a “serious shortage” below the 10th percentile.
Despite the general improvement, 10 of the longer-term totals are still extreme shortages, below the 1st percentile. However, only one breaks a record.

One record low rainfall

Only one rainfall total was a new record low value: the 96-month (8-year) total of 4104 mm. This record, having stood at 4405 mm since November 1919, was broken successively in November and December 2019 and January and February 2020.

Record-breaking low rainfall totals from 2018

Until 2018, no new records for low rainfall had been set since 1971. Most records had stood since the droughts of the 1940’s, more than 70 years ago.
In September 2018, a new record was set for the 15-month total (400 mm).
Since then (to include February 2020), new records have been set for 12-, 15-, 18-, 24-, 30-, 36-, 42-, 48-, 60-, 72-, 84-, and 96-months. That is, at 12 of the 25 selected durations. Some records have been broken repeatedly; five times in the case of the 15-month duration.
To judge by records broken, this drought is by far the worst at Manilla since readings began (1883).

How to read the graph

This graph shows all the present rainfall shortages at Manilla, short term and long term, as percentile values. The latest values, as at the end of February 2020, are shown by a thick black line with large circles. Those from one month earlier are shown by a thinner line with small diamonds. [The method is described in “Further Explanation” below.]


Further Explanation

The following notes explain aspects of this work under these listed headings:

Data analysis

Cumulative rainfall totals
Percentile values
Severity of rainfall shortages

Limitations of this analysis

Monthly rainfalls form a single population
Observations are not retrospective
The rain gauge failed

Data analysis

Continue reading

2019 new hottest and driest year

At Manilla, NSW, in the twenty years from 2000, the year 2019 was the hottest and the driest, overtaking the year 2018.

Climate logs Manilla 20-years

Climate records kept at 3 Monash Street, Manilla from April 1999 yield these eight graphs of climate variables. The graphs on the left (red) show heat and those on the right (blue) show moisture.
These graphs show the figures for calendar years, not for seasons.
In general, the temperatures in this 20-year record rose, with a pause between 2004 and 2012. Moisture peaked about 2010.
At Manilla, a sudden rise in temperature and fall in rainfall happened after 2017, having been much slower before that.
Dashed horizontal lines mark the normals for the decade from April 1999.

Left column graphs (red)

Yearly Mean Maximum Screen Temperatures

Day temperatures are shown by the mean maximum temperature in the Gill-type thermometer screen. The year 2019, at 27.91°, had the hottest days by far. The year 2018 had 27.13°, and 2002 and 2014 were almost as warm.The coldest days were in 2008 (24.57°) and 2010 (24.60°), followed by 2001 and 2011.
The 4th-order trend line shows a minimum about 2010, followed by a rapid rise.

Yearly Mean Screen Temperatures

This graph shows warmth in general, as in the study of global warming. Daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures are averaged. The year 2019 was the warmest (19.83°), followed by 2018, 2014, and 2009. The coolest year in this century was 2008 (17.19°), followed by 2001, 2011, and 2012.
The 4th-order trend line shows near-constant temperature from 2000 to 2011, followed by a rapid rise.

Yearly Minimum Screen Temperatures

Night temperatures are shown by the mean minimum temperature in the thermometer screen. While 2018 had not had very warm nights, 2019, at 11.75°, had warmest nights as well as days. The next warmest were in 2014, 2010 and 2009. Years with nights cooler than 10° on average were 2012, 2008, 2006 and 2001.
The 4th-order trend line shows a rise from 2000 to 2008, then near-constant temperature to 2014, followed by a rapid rise.

Yearly Subsoil Temperatures

Yearly temperatures in the subsoil (at 750 mm depth) hardly related at all to air temperatures read in the Gill Screen. The best match is in 2008, when the subsoil temperature was lowest (19.00°), as were the screen mean (17.19°) and the screen maximum (24.57°).
[Note that world temperature was low late in 2007.]
Continue reading

January 2020: still 5 drought records

Rainfall status Dec-19, Jan-20

Changing shortages

January rainfall of 46.8 mm further reduced short-term shortages, bringing the 9-month total (212 mm) out of the “extreme shortage” class. Most longer-duration totals remained in that class, however.

Fewer record low rainfalls

By December 2019, there had been 10 new record low rainfalls. Records were set not only for 12-months duration, but for every one of the 9 chosen durations from 24-months to 96-months. In January 2020 there were only 5 new records, although there were 4 2nd-lowest values that also plotted on the 0.1th percentile line. The 5 new records were:

36-months duration: 1098 mm;
48-months duration: 11775 mm;
60-months duration: 2384 mm;
84-months duration: 3419 mm;
96-months duration: 4132 mm.

How to read the graph

This graph shows all the present rainfall shortages at Manilla, short term and long term, as percentile values. The latest values, as at the end of January 2020, are shown by a thick black line with large circles. Those from one month earlier are shown by a thinner line with small diamonds. [The method is described in “Further Explanation” below.]


Further Explanation

The following notes explain aspects of this work under these listed headings:

Data analysis

Cumulative rainfall totals
Percentile values
Severity of rainfall shortages

Limitations of this analysis

Monthly rainfalls form a single population
Observations are not retrospective
The rain gauge failed

Data analysis

Continue reading

December 2019: 10 new drought records

Rainfall status Nov-Dec 2019

Changing shortages

December rainfall of 19.6 mm, added to November rainfall of 40.2 mm, reduced the shortages for durations up to six months, but it did not prevent the drought becoming worse at nearly all longer durations. The shortage was extreme (1st percentile) at every duration beyond 6-months, except at 120-, and 144-months (severe shortage) and at 360-months (serious shortage).Although the 360-month total of 18,596 mm, being at the 10th percentile, is merely a “serious” shortage, this is the lowest 360-month rainfall total since 1952!

Record low rainfalls

New record low rainfall totals were set in December 2019 as follows:

12-months duration: 255 mm;
24-months duration: 582 mm;
30-months duration: 791 mm;
36-months duration: 1099 mm;
42-months duration: 1477 mm;
48-months duration: 1833 mm;
60-months duration: 2455 mm;
72-months duration: 2901 mm;
84-months duration: 3477 mm;
96-months duration: 4146 mm.

For most of these durations, the record had already been broken several times in this drought. However, three of these records had stood for over a century:

42-month duration: 1477 mm beats (by 43 mm) the record of 1520 mm set in September 1914;
48-month duration: 1833 mm beats (by 3 mm) the record of 1836 mm set in February 1915;
60-month duration: 2455 mm beats (by 11 mm) the record of 2466 mm set in February 1916.

How to read the graph

This graph shows all the present rainfall shortages at Manilla, short term and long term, as percentile values. The latest values, as at the end of November 2019, are shown by a thick black line with large circles. Those from one month earlier are shown by a thinner line with small diamonds. [The method is described in “Further Explanation” below.]


Further Explanation

The following notes explain aspects of this work under these listed headings:

Data analysis

Cumulative rainfall totals
Percentile values
Severity of rainfall shortages

Limitations of this analysis

Monthly rainfalls form a single population
Observations are not retrospective
The rain gauge failed

Data analysis

Continue reading

Rainfalls: 8 in the 0.1th percentile

Rainfall status October November 2019

Normal rainfall in November

Rainfall in November 2019 (40.2 mm) was near normal. That reduced shortages at durations from 2-months to 5-months. Otherwise it had little effect: fifteen of twenty longer durations remained extreme shortages.

Values plotted in the 0.1th percentile

For simplicity, the bottom line is labelled with the 0.1th percentile value, and percentile values below 0.1% are plotted on the line. As there are 1600 months of record, both the 2nd-driest month (percentile value 0.063%) and the driest month, (percentile value 0.000%, by convention), which would plot below the line, are plotted on it.
Driest records have again been broken at durations of 12-months (270 mm), 24-months (611 mm), 30-months (834 mm), 72-months (2927 mm), and 96-months (4205 mm). The 96-month record had stood at 4405 mm since November 1919.
A value that equals an earlier record occurs at 84-months (3555 mm).
Values that are 2nd-driest occur at 36-months (1129 mm) and at 240-months (11816 mm). The 240-month (20-year) total is now only 50 mm more than the lowest-ever value of 11766 mm set in February 1931.

How to read the graph

This graph shows all the present rainfall shortages at Manilla, short term and long term, as percentile values. The latest values, as at the end of October 2019, are shown by a thick black line with large circles. Those from one month earlier are shown by a thinner line with small diamonds. [The method is described in “Further Explanation” below.]


Further Explanation

The following notes explain aspects of this work under these listed headings:

Data analysis

Cumulative rainfall totals
Percentile values
Severity of rainfall shortages

Limitations of this analysis

Monthly rainfalls form a single population
Observations are not retrospective
The rain gauge failed

Data analysis

Continue reading

How much rainfall is now lost?

Rainfall deficits in mm at Manilla NSW, Oct 2019

This graph shows the total rainfall shortage in this drought at Manilla NSW. It uses the same rainfall figures as in the October Rainfall Status graph, that is, the rainfall totals for up to 360 months. In this case, I have subtracted from them the normal rainfall totals. That shows the rainfall deficit: how much less rainfall we have had than we normally would.

Generally a 1-year deficit

In many cases, the shortage now is about 650 mm, or one year of normal rainfall. This is true when calculated for 24-months and for several other durations including 360-months. In broad terms, this drought has left Manilla about one year short of rain.

Deficits are smaller at short durations.

A one-year deficit could occur at a duration of 12-months only if there were no rain. A curve on the graph shows “No rain at all”. A second curve is labelled “50% of normal Rain”. These October data show that the rainfall totals for durations below 24-months are around 30% of normal.

Deficits larger than 650 mm occur at some long durations

There are three dips in the curve where deficits are greater than one year of rainfall.

  1. The 3-year deficit is now 820 mm, due to very low rainfall in the last six months. Such values may yet appear at other durations.
  2. The 7-year deficit is now 920 mm. This deficit is due to the inclusion of severe rainfall shortages of 12-month to 30-month duration in 2013 and 2014. These appear on this drought duration graph, but were scarcely noticed at the time.
  3. The 20-year deficit is now 1100 mm. The 650 mm deficit due to the current drought is supplemented by deficits of some 200 mm carried forward from both the 2013-14 shortages (above) and the extreme 12-month shortage of 2002.

What the deficits mean

In times of normal or excess rainfall, the whole terrain is kept supplied with water. It goes to aquifers deep underground, to shallow aquifers near streams, to stream-flow, and to the soil and plants. In general, the longer the duration of normal or excess rainfall, the larger the reservoirs, both underground and on the surface, that can be filled.
The present deficit of one year of rainfall must have drawn down all the reserves of water in the terrain. The empty state of the Keepit Dam (0.8%) is an obvious result, but all other reserves must have fallen.

21stC Rain Shortage Oct ’19

Record of rainfall shortages Jan 2000 Oct 2019

Since the graph for May, the drought at Manilla has become more severe at all durations, from two months up to 240 months.

[For explanation of this graph, see below: “About drought duration graphs”.]

Shortages Jan 2000 to Oct 2019

Seasonal rain shortages recorded to October 2019 are extreme (1st percentile) in the winters of both 2018 and 2019.
For durations of 9 months up to 96 months, extreme shortages now occur at all of the durations shown . This is much worse than in May. At that time, shortages had not been “extreme” (red), but merely “severe” (grey) at the durations of 36-, 42-, 48-, 60-, and 96-months.
By May, “severe” shortages had already appeared at the very long durations of 120-, 150-, and 240-months. Now, there are also severe shortages at 108-months and 180-months.
The shortage at 240-months has now also become extreme (red). Very low rainfalls since May have dragged down the 240-month total to make it the sixth driest on record at Manilla. This links the short extreme drought of 2002  to become a part of the current drought. That would have seemed unlikely during later deluges, as in summer 2011-12.

Complete Manilla drought record to Oct 2019

Compete record updated to October

When the graph of the complete record of months of rainfall shortage at Manilla is updated to October 2019 it is clear that the current drought is one of the greatest droughts in history.
Now that an extreme rainfall shortage has appeared at 240-month (20-year) duration, along with a complete suite of extreme shortages from 2-months to 96-months, only the droughts of 1912 and 1946 are comparable. The Federation drought of 1902 may also have had a 20-year extreme shortage, but data for that duration are incomplete.


About drought duration graphs

These graphs show the onset, persistence, and breaking of episodes of extreme and severe rainfall shortage (droughts) at Manilla. The Continue reading