July 2017 fine with cold nights

July morning photo of Manilla from the lookout

Manilla Prospect in July

Through most of the month, days were fine and sunny, but some days, mainly in the middle, were cloudy and some had a little rain. The highest reading, on the 16th, was only 7.4 mm.
No days were remarkable except the 28th which, at 23.7°, equalled the record for July set 31/07/14. It was 6.1° above normal.
Frosts (below +2.2° in the screen) happened on 23 mornings, 6 more than normal. However, the coldest morning, at -2.6°, was not nearly as cold as the record of -5.1° set in 2002.

Weather log

Comparing July months

Unlike July 2016, which had been cloudy with warm nights, this July was fine with cold nights. Days, at 18.1°, were not quite as warm as in July 2013 (18.9°), the warmest in the new century.
Moisture was scarce, as in the record-making July of 2002. Readings that reflected low moisture were:

Daily minimum temperature very low: +1.2° (2002: 0.9°);
Very many frosts: 23 (2002: 27);
Very low percentage of cloudy mornings: 29% (2002: 23%);
Very low early morning dew point: -1.4° (2002: -1.4°);
Very wide daily temperature range: 16.9° (2002: 18.5°);
Very low rainfall: 13.2 mm (2002: 1.0 mm).

Relative humidity in the early mornings, normally 90% in July, was 74%. That was the lowest July value in my 13-year record.
Despite the total rainfall of 13.2 mm (16th percentile) being far below the July average (41 mm), there are still no shortages of rainfall for groups of months. The most recent serious shortage was nearly two years ago. In October 2015, the 30-month total to that date (1216 mm) was still down at the 6th percentile. That shortage was carried over from an earlier extreme event: the 85 mm summer rainfall of 2013-14 that was 142 mm below average.

Climate graph for July

Data. A Bureau of Meteorology automatic rain gauge operates in the museum yard. From 17 March 2017, 9 am daily readings are published as Manilla Museum, Station 55312.  These reports use that rainfall data when it is available. All other data, including subsoil at 750 mm, are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

3-year trends to July 2017

Fine with a wide daily temperature range

3-year climate trends to July 2017

July raw anomaly data (orange)

In July 2017 the largest anomaly was the very wide daily temperature range (middle right graph). This was linked to the daily minimum temperature anomaly (lower left graph) falling suddenly very low.
All moisture indicators pointed to aridity (upwards), and the anomalies of both daily maximum temperature and subsoil temperature were high.

 Fully smoothed data (red)

The latest available fully-smoothed data point, January 2017, showed continued warming in the anomalies of maximum, minimum and subsoil temperatures. These were coming to a peak: the maximum and minimum perhaps in February, but subsoil not for several months.
Moisture anomaly variables were near a peak of aridity. Dew point had peaked (low) in November, cloudiness (low) and daily temperature range (high) in January, with rainfall (low) likely in February.


Fully smoothed data – Gaussian smoothing with half-width 6 months – are plotted in red, partly smoothed data uncoloured, and raw data for the last data point in orange. January data points are marked by squares.
Blue diamonds and the dashed blue rectangle show the extreme values in the fully smoothed data record since September 1999.

Normal values are based on averages for the decade from March 1999.* They appear on these graphs as a turquoise (turquoise) circle at the origin (0,0). A range of anomalies called “normal” is shown by a dashed rectangle in aqua (aqua). For values in degrees, the assigned normal range is +/-0.7°; for cloudiness, +/-7%; for monthly rainfall, +/-14 mm.

 * Normal values for rainfall are based on averages for the 125 years beginning 1883.

September 2015 cold and dry

Photo of native clematis

Native clematis

Few days or nights in September were warmer than normal. The 23rd was a very cold day (17.1°) and the 24th had a very cold morning (-0.1°). The weekly temperature was near normal in the third week, but it had been cool in the first. It was cold (4.7 below normal) in the fourth week, and was rising through normal at the month’s end.
As is usual in September, most days were fine, and they were much warmer than the nights. The afternoon humidity was low (24%), but not nearly as low as in 2013 (15%).
Rain fell on only four days, with the highest reading 8.6 mm on the 4th.

Weather log for September 2015

 Comparing September months

In a dramatic change from August, both days and nights were very cold, as they were in September 2004.
The aridity was not quite as bad as in 2013, when the dew point was lower and there was less cloud.
Such cold, dry conditions are not those of an El Niño event (hot and dry) or of a La Niña event (cold and wet). If more extreme, they would be those of a glacial period.
The rainfall of 15.9 mm was well below average, in the 22nd percentile. There are still no serious shortages in rainfall totals for small numbers of months. A severe shortage (4th percentile) has appeared in the 30 month total (1186 mm). There are still deep ponds in Greenhatch Creek.

Climate for September 2015

Data. All data, including subsoil at 750 mm, are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla. Rainfall data up to 26/3/15 is from Manilla Post Office, Station 055031.

April 2008: fog and black frosts

The daily weather log

Weather log April 2008

Usually, the air cools and dries out quickly during April. This time only the daily maximum temperature came steadily down. The average temperature hovered near 16° until the last days.
At first, the air was very dry, with a Dew Point below 5°. Under a clear sky on the 4th the early morning temperature went down to 2.1° in the screen, which would be 0.1° of frost. Because the Dew Point (-3.8°) was much lower than that, there was no ice on the grass, which made it a “black frost”. It is said that frosts seldom occur in Manilla before ANZAC Day (April 25th).
As the month went on the air got moister. By the 24th the clouds in the overcast sky were down on the hills. On the 26th the town was blanketed in fog as the humidity hit 100%. (Temperature and Dew Point were both 8°.)
Evaporation was increased by strong winds on the 27th and 28th.
Dry southerly air made the last three days cool and sunny. Black frosts came back giving screen temperatures of 0.6° and 0.1° (around 2° of frost).
Practically no rain (3.6 mm) fell in more than seven weeks from 29 February to 21 April. After that, there were four rain days, including 12.8 mm on the 24th. In total, 20.2 mm fell in April, on five rain days.

 Comparing April months

Climate April 2008

The mean temperature this month was nearly as low as the coolest  April in ten years (1999). This was the fifth cool month in a row: December (1.0° down)  January (1.9° down) February (3.1° down) March (0.9° down) and April (2.1° down). As a 5-month average the temperature was 1.8° below normal. It is as if Manilla had been moved 400 km south (near Grenfell) or 150 metres higher (like Barraba). (Note added: This was a time of global low temperature.)

The month was as cloudy as usual, but less humid.
At 20 mm, this April’s total rainfall is about 20 mm below average, as in 2001 and 2004. It is much higher than in April 2005, when Manilla was in a rainfall  drought for several months.
The rainfall total for this March and April (22 mm) is in the 4th percentile of two-monthly totals: a severe shortage. However, the three-month total (138 mm) is just below the median, and the totals for 4, 5, 6, 9 and 12 months are all at the median or above it. In particular, the 6-month total (401 mm) is quite high, at the 75th percentile.

Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Dew point values before August 2005 are from Tamworth Airport 6 am data supplied by the Bureau of Meteorology. Temperature and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.


Dry, Dry March 2008

The daily weather log

Weather log March 2008

After 115.6 mm of rain in February, March crashed to just 2.2 mm with only three rain days. In 1971 it was worse: that year February had 173 mm and March 1 mm!
This month the air was very dry, too. Morning Dew Points which had been quite low (10°) all month, plunged to zero or less in the last days.
Although there were six cloudy mornings, eighteen mornings were completely cloud-free. The whole of the summer had only thirteen free of cloud!
Due to the dry, fine weather, three-quarters of the days had a range of temperature higher than the normal value of 15.4°. Three days had a range of 21° or more.
The 7-day average temperature began and ended well below normal, but was above normal in the third week. Nights were cold (8° below normal) in the first and last days.

 Comparing March months

Climate March 2008

The mean daily maximum temperature this March (29.9°) is normal, but the mean daily minimum (12.2°) is the lowest in ten years. It is 2° below the average, and 4° below that of 2007 (and 2000).
The mean morning Dew Point, 8.8°, is 3° lower than normal for March. This shows very dry air, which is wilting many shallow-rooted plants.
The total rainfall of 2.2 mm is much lower than the other Marches on the graph. It is not very low compared with Marches in the long-term record: it is on the 6th percentile. In Manilla, rainfall varies more in March and April than in other months.
There must be a lot of water deep in the soil. Total rainfalls for the last 2, 3… 18 months are all above the median. The four and five-month totals are particularly high, in the 83rd percentile.

Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Dew point values before August 2005 are from Tamworth Airport 6 am data supplied by the Bureau of Meteorology. Temperature and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.


Cold, cloudy wet February 2008

The daily weather logWeather log February 2008

Reading the 7-day mean temperatures, the month started near normal, but cooled to unusually low figures by the end of the first week – five degrees down! For a week from the 19th it was only two degrees below normal, then back to four degrees down at the end of the month.
Days were particularly cool, running about 29° instead of 33°.  However, the coolest days were not extreme.
The warmest day, Friday the 22nd, reached only 35.5°. The following morning was the warmest at 26.1°.
Dry air arrived from the south on the 24th, with a Dew Point of only 5.8°.
Rain fell frequently until the 19th, with the 6th being the wettest day (32 mm). The 29th was also very wet. There were nine rain days, totalling 115.6 mm. This is nearly twice the long-term February average of 66 mm.
Very few mornings were “Fine” (with no cloud).

 Comparing February months

Climate February 2008

This was by far the coldest of the last nine Februaries, by day and by night. The mean daily maximum of 28.8°, the mean daily mean of 22.2°, and the mean daily minimum of 15.6° were all well below average, by 3.7°, 3.1°, and 2.5° respectively.
The contrast with the last two years is stark: the days in February 2007 were 4.5° hotter, and those in February 2006, 5.2° hotter than this month. (Note added: This cooling was global.)
With 58% of mornings exceeding 4 octas of cloud, this February, along with December 2007 (58%) and June 2007 (60%) was one of the cloudiest months in nine years. Most months in Manilla have about 30% cloudy mornings.

This month’s rainfall of 116 mm is in the 81st percentile of February totals. (Last February’s 128 mm was the seventeenth wettest February on record.) Taking rainfall totals for more than one month, every total up to 12 months is very high: above the 70th percentile.

Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Dew point values before August 2005 are from Tamworth Airport 6 am data supplied by the Bureau of Meteorology. Temperature and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.


Fine cold days in July 2007

The daily weather logWeather log July 2007

Most days in July were cooler than normal. The first chart shows cold days persisted for more than a fortnight. The coldest, on the 16th, reached only 10.5°, which is 5° below normal. However, the weather was mainly pleasant, with more fine days and fewer cloudy days than usual.

There were warm nights at each end of the month, including one 7° above normal. In the middle, there were thirteen frosty nights in a row (below +2.2 degrees in the thermometer screen). The lowest temperature for the month was minus 4.4°. There were 17 frosts in total; far fewer than the 28 frosts of July 2002. (Note added in 2014: Up to, and including 2011, minima have been below minus 4° only sixteen times:  June 2000 (5), June 2002 (1), July 2002 (6), July 2003 (2) and July 2007 (2).)

With both days and nights being so cold, the weekly average temperature went as low as 4.7° below normal on the 17th.

There were seven rain days, which is normal, but the highest reading (on the 1st) was only 4.2 mm.

 Comparing July monthsClimate July 2007

This July had colder daytime maximum temperatures than any July in the last seven. Night-time minimum temperatures were also a bit on the low side. July 2002 stands out from the others. It had by far the lowest night-time temperatures in these years: three degrees below the average. Cloudiness was low in both 2002 and 2007.

The month’s rainfall of 9.0 mm is quite low, in the 12th percentile for July. However, there have been few dry months recently, so no totals for more than one month are as low as the 20th percentile.

Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Dew point values before August 2005 are from Tamworth Airport 6 am data supplied by the Bureau of Meteorology. Temperature and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.