Cloudy December 2010; cloudy year

The daily weather log

Weather log December 2010

December moved further into the cool, cloudy, humid and wet part of the climate cycle that Dorothea Mackellar called “Flooding Rains”. Nearly all days were cooler than normal, the 19th by as much as 12°. Some nights were also cool, the 21st being 10° below normal.
The highest rainfall reading of 26.4 mm came early in the month. The total of 113.8 mm came in 15 rain days. In 126 years, only six months have had more than 15 rain days. No month ever had more than the 18 rain days of June 1950.

Comparing December months

Climate December 2010

Both the mean daily maximum temperature (28.1°) and the mean daily mean temperature (22.2°) were the lowest for December on this 12-year record. The mean daily temperature range (11.7°) was also a record low value. The mean subsoil temperature (22.7°) was the lowest December value since 1999.
There were 58% cloudy mornings, nearly twice the normal percentage..
The rainfall of 113.8 mm is in the 82nd percentile for December, far above the long-term average of 74 mm. Totals for groups of 2-, 3-, and 4-months are now all above the 90th percentile.

The year 2010

The rainfall for the year was 719 mm. This is well above average, in the 64th percentile, but the years 2004, 2007, and 2008 were just as wet. Most remarkable is that the number of rain days in the year, 112, was the highest ever. The average year has 69 rain days, and the year with the fewest rain days (38) was 1898.
The year was by far the cloudiest in 12 years: half the mornings were cloudy, when normally only one-third of them are. Every month was cloudier than usual.
With the cloud came remarkably even temperatures. Taking average values, the daily maximum temperature (24.6°) was a degree cooler than usual, the daily minimum temperature (11.3°) was a degree warmer than usual, and the daily range of temperature (13.3°) was two degrees narrower than usual.


Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

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Spring 2010 cloudy, damp and cool

Weather log spring 2010

Days this spring were very cool, keeping the seven-day mean maximum curve below normal nearly all the time. Twenty-two mornings were overcast, twice the usual number, and the number of rain days (29) was the highest in twelve springs.


The mean daily maximum temperature (24.1°) was a record low in this data set, more than 4° lower than last year. Similarly, the daily temperature range (12.9°) was unusually narrow, 3.5° narrower than last year. Other temperatures were near normal, except for the record low Subsoil temperature of 17.5°. Cloudy mornings, at 56%, were a record high.
The total spring rainfall of 249 mm is in the 86th percentile. While this is well above the long-term spring average of 166 mm, four of the previous eleven springs were even wetter: 1999, 2000, 2005, and 2008.
Climate spring 2010

Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

November 2010: more cool, cloudy, wet weather

The daily weather log

Weather log November 2010 Manilla

As in October, November’s days were very cool: only 5 days went above 30°.
Rain fell on 11 days. The highest reading was 21.0 mm on the 12th.

Comparing November months

Climate November 2010 Manilla

The mean daily maximum temperature (26.5°) was the lowest for November on this 12-year record. The mean daily temperature range (12.4°) was (with November 2008) a record low value.
Mean subsoil temperature (20.4°) was the lowest since November 1999. The month ended with subsoil temperature (then 22.2°) trailing only 10 days later than its usual date. It had begun the month 22 days late.
There were more cloudy mornings (53%) than in any November on this record.
The rainfall of 105.4 mm is in the 84th percentile for November, far above the long-term average of 67 mm. Totals for groups of months up to 15 months are now all above the median, as is the thirty-year total.


Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

Cool, cloudy, wet October 2010

The daily weather logWeather log October 2010 Manilla

 

October days were very cool: no days went above 30°, when usually seven days do, and the 16th, at 14.2°, was 13° below normal. The following night (the only frost) was 10° below normal. A day earlier, overcast skies brought an extremely narrow daily temperature range (2.3°) on the 15th.
Rain fell on 8 days. The highest reading was 20.4 mm on the 4th.

Comparing October monthsClimate October 2010 Manilla

 

The mean daily maximum temperature (24.2°) was the lowest for October on this 12-year record. The mean daily mean temperature (17.7°) was low, but the mean daily minimum temperature (11.2°) was normal. The mean daily temperature range (13.1°) was a record low value.
Mean subsoil temperature was remarkably low: 17.4° against a 12-year October mean of 19.4°. The month ended with subsoil temperature (then 18.8°) trailing 22 days later than its usual date.
There were more cloudy mornings (58%) than in any October on this record. The mean early morning Dew Point (9.6°) was also high.
The rainfall of 85.4 mm is in the 80th percentile for October, far above the long-term average of 58 mm. Totals for groups of months up to six months are now all above the median, as is the thirty-year total.


Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

Rainy, very cloudy September 2010

The daily weather logWeather log September 2010 Manilla

 

Like August, September had no extremes. Many days had normal temperatures, especially late in the month, and many others were cool. Nights varied, with two frosts, but most were warm.
Rain fell on 11 days, a September record number for the decade. The highest reading was 22.2 mm on the 10th. A reading of 12.6 mm was due to a brief afternoon shower on the 27th.

Comparing September monthsClimate September 2010 Manilla

 

The mean daily temperature (14.9°) was normal, but days (21.5°) were only 13.3° warmer than nights (8.2°). Usually, September has the highest daily temperature range of the year: 16.9°.
Along with cool days and warm nights, there were more cloudy mornings (57%) than in any September on this record. Very high humidity made the mean early morning Dew Point (7.3°) nearly two degrees higher than normal.
The rainfall of 59.3 mm is in the 76th percentile for September, well above the long-term average of 41 mm. Totals for two, three, and four months are now all above the median. The thirty-year total has now reached the median value, after three years below it.


Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

Winter 2010 wet, with few frosts

 An episode of maritime climate

I have posted this seasonal report for winter 2010 on the front page, as a sticky post, to show how the climate of that season was not normal. It was not the average temperature or the rainfall that were unusual. The sky was very cloudy, the humidity very high, and the daily temperature range very low. The climate was equable, as one would expect at a place near the sea: a maritime climate. More in the footnote*

Weather log winter 2010

Temperatures this winter changed little from month to month. June, July and August each had temperatures near the season averages: maximum 17.0°, mean 10.7° and minimum 4.5°. Warm days were rare: only 11 exceeded 20° (usually 25). This winter was even less frosty than the last, with only 32 frosts (usually 44). The lowest minimum was -3.1°.
There were 33 rain days, about twice the usual number.


In terms of daily mean temperature, this winter was normal, However, cool days and warm nights made the daily temperature range (12.5°) narrower than in any winter in the 12-year record. It was also the cloudiest, at 49% cloudy mornings. Manilla’s climate became much more cloudy three years ago, when the average number of cloudy mornings in a month jumped suddenly from nine to twelve (See also these other graphs.). Humidity, as shown by early morning Dew Point was also very high this winter. All these changes reflect a more maritime climate, as on the coast.
Each month would have had rainfall close to average, were it not for one reading of 34.2 mm at the end of July. The total of 160 mm is in the 70th percentile, like that of the wet winters of 2005 and 2007.

Climate winter 2010

*Footnote. The nature of this episode is clear on the 3-year graphs of climate trends, such as that for August 2011. The top left graph shows that, in June, July, and August 2010, rainfall was a little high and daily maximum temperature rather low. The bottom left graph shows the main anomaly: daily minimum temperature remained extremely high while daily maximum rapidly fell, reaching a record low value by October 2010. From July to November that year the difference between daily maximum and daily minimum temperature was some three degrees less than normal.
The middle graph on the right shows directly that the daily temperature range in those months was at record low (narrow) values.

Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.

Cool days in August 2010

The daily weather logWeather log August 2010 Manilla

August had no extremes. Only four days exceeded 20° (usually thirteen days), and only ten nights were frosty (usually fifteen). The subsoil temperature failed to rise during the month, ending at 13.5°, which is 1.0° cooler than normal.

Rain fell on 13 days, an August record for the decade, but the highest reading was only 10 mm.

Comparing August monthsClimate August 2010 Manilla

The mean daily maximum temperature (26.5°) was the lowest for November on this 12-year record. The mean daily temperature range (12.4°) was (with November 2008) a record low value.

Mean subsoil temperature (20.4°) was the lowest since November 1999. The month ended with subsoil temperature (then 22.2°) trailing only 10 days later than its usual date. It had begun the month 22 days late.
There were more cloudy mornings (53%) than in any November on this record.
The rainfall of 105.4 mm is in the 84th percentile for November, far above the long-term average of 67 mm. Totals for groups of months up to 15 months are now all above the median, as is the thirty-year total.


Data. Rainfall data is from Manilla Post Office, courtesy of Phil Pinch. Temperatures, including subsoil at 750 mm, and other data are from 3 Monash Street, Manilla.